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Новости/Аналитика

Biocomposites of hemp (Part 1)

02.08.2016

Every year a huge amount of know-how related to the use of biocomposite materials based on hemp introduced into industrial production economically developed countries of the world. Particularly dynamic products from biocomposites of hemp used in the modern automotive industry. There are several types of bioplastics and bioplastics, made on the basis of hemp. This publication is an attempt to systematize the available information on these issues.
 
The material is divided into the following sections:
 
- Hemp pulp;
 
- Cellophane, viscose and celluloid;
 
- Other products made from hemp pulp;
 
- Plastic composites based on hemp;
 
- 100% biocomposites of hemp;
 
- 100% organic polyethylene terephthalate;
 
- Possibility to produce monoethylene glycol and terephthalic acid from hemp bio-ethanol;
 
- Hemp as a source of bio-ethanol;
 
- Production of ethanol from hemp pulp.
 
Hemp pulp
 
Cellulose is the most common organic polymer on earth. It is an essential part of the cell walls of plants and a large amount of algae. Despite the fact that hemp pulp is mainly used for the production of paper, in recent years, it is actively used as a basis for the production of a number of different plastics - celluloid, cellophane and rayon. At the initial stage of the plastics industry it has been based on the use of non-synthetic organic materials and pulp. Over time, it has been replaced by synthetic organic components and has developed to a thriving industry today. However, the major manufacturers in recent years have increasingly focused on technologies based on the use of organic materials as the basis for the production of bioplastmas and bioplastics not only because they have a minimal impact on the environment, but also in connection with the improved compared to plastics, synthetic based indicators.
 
Cellophane, viscose and celluloid
 
Cellophane and viscose structurally identical to cellulose. They are prepared by a similar algorithm: cellulose is dissolved in an alkaline solution and then extruded through a nozzle into a bath of sulfuric acid to obtain a cellophane film through a die to obtain viscose fiber. Celluloid get slightly different technology. First manufactured nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate) is then added and camphor, is widely used for this plasticizer to obtain a dense thermoplastic, which are imparted excellent various forms with some heating.
 
Hemp Cellulose can be extracted from trusts and used for the production of cellophane, rayon, celluloid and other plastics. Hemp contains from 65 to 70% cellulose in the plant world is considered one of her best sources (wood contains about 40% linen and 65% cotton and 90% less). It hemp pulp is particularly promising raw material for bioplastics market in view of the fact that her inherent relative strength as well as low impact on the environment during cultivation, manufacture, operation, and later during recycling. Take into account the factor that hemp grows much faster than most species of trees and cultivation requires much less pesticides or other agents stimulating plant growth than cotton or linen.
 
Other products made from hemp pulp
 
Hemp pulp is used to manufacture a vast range of different plastics and other characteristics similar to those substances. All these products are largely differ only in length and the physical properties of the polymer chains and the degree of crystallization. For example, hemp pulp obtained pseudoplastic nanotsellyulozu that looks like a gel. Under normal conditions, this substance is viscous and gel-like. Under the influence of external factors, such as shaking, it becomes fluid. Nanotsellyuloza has a wide range of application as reinforcing material biocomposite plastic superabsorbent cleaning oil films on various surfaces, is widely used in the manufacture of a huge range of sanitary products and even as a stabilizer, is used for reducing caloric food.
 
Источник фото: 
Author: 
Alexander Ignatyuk
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