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The Industrial Revolution, as the cause of the degradation of European hemp textile market in the XIX century


Production of bast-fiber crops were virtually destroyed in spite of the fact that hemp fabrics made from raw material produced in Europe and imported cotton from India. 

In 1760 there was the first spinning machine "Jenny". This revolutionary invention is a spinning wheel with multiple spindles. But even this machine could not meet the demand for a string of ever-increasing demand for a growing population of cities. In 1764, the barber and wig salesman from England Richard Arkrayd invented a machine, which, like the distaff "Jenny", turned the roving (carded cotton) in the thread, but did it with incredible speed at the time. It was called the ring spinning machine and drives a water wheel. By themselves, the machine of the time were very cumbersome and could not be used in the home, so the first time began to build separate rooms in which to host multiple ring spinning machines Arkrayda. Thus it appeared the first factory in which one machine Arkrayda replaced 50 experienced spinners and 50 cars, about 4 thousand workers. Thus, mass production was first made of cotton fabric.  

Subsequently Arkwright created machinery that are preparing for their raw cotton ring spinning machines, which significantly reduced the processing of cotton and further reduced the cost of cotton fabrics. It is thanks to the invention, the ring spinning machine Arkrayda Europe was "littered with" low-cost and high-quality British cotton cloth

Spinning cotton it was put on stream and turned into an industry that dates back to the volume and rate of production of other textile industry of the European continent. It was during this period began the decline of the "home" production of flax and hemp fabrics, well-established before that in France and Belgium. Production of bast-fiber crops were virtually destroyed despite the fact that hemp fabrics made from raw material produced in Europe and imported cotton from India. 

Production of flax and hemp in France and Belgium remained unchanged for centuries. The problem has been the inability to mechanization of the period of harvest of flax and hemp, as well as their processing. Cotton machine Arkrayda producers of flax and hemp could not adapt to your needs due to the biological characteristics lubnovoloknistyh cultures. 

Production of cotton fabrics moved from homes to factories after the invention of the cotton machines. Woven fabrics of cotton came on the market in large numbers and have a low price. The situation was so serious that he had to intervene to the emperor of France. Already in the early 19th century, cotton is almost entirely ousted from the market textile flax and hemp. The Emperor was so worried that the French flax and hemp industry can not compete English cotton spinning, which offered a reward of one million francs to anyone who fit the production of hemp and linen to the standards of the 19th century. 

Today flax and hemp spun on a machine invented by Frenchman Philippe de Gerard. He pushed for action award of one million francs promised by Napoleon. De Gerard made his car in 1814, just 4 years after Napoleon offered a reward. The experts, who were asked to rate the invention de Gerard so carefully studied and examined the car, when still recognized her meritorious, Napoleon had deposed, and de Gerard and left without the promised money. 

Now, when crops bast-fiber spinning was mechanized, it required an improved method of extracting fibers from flax and hemp trusts. This process was not easy to mechanise. Appropriate myalno-picker machine appeared only in the late 19th century. Its capacity is 400 times faster than ordinary workers who process the data manually. 

It was in the late 19th century mass production reached flax and hemp industry, but the moment has come too late. Lubnovoloknistye tissue have not been able to restore its position in the European and world textile market after losing the competition with cotton in the 19th century. 

Already in the 20th century, cotton, flax and hemp market significantly pressed synthetic fibers. The mechanism to achieve dominance of synthetic fabrics on the market compared with natural fibers, in principle, similar to the English cotton out of the market in Europe 18-19 century, flax and hemp.

Уже в 20 столетии хлопок, лен и коноплю на рынке существенно потеснили синтетические волокна. Механизм достижения доминирования синтетических тканей на рынке по сравнению с натуральными волокнами в принципе аналогичен тому, как английский хлопок вытеснял с рынка Европы 18-19 века лен и коноплю.

Александр Игнатюк
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